Fitness Technology: 3 Ways to Work Out Smarter Than Ever

Not just for pro athletes anymore, the latest technological advances help everyday fitness enthusiasts get better results, faster.

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Confession: I’m a low-tech guy. To my way of thinking, the gym is no place for labor-saving devices. Much of what passes for fitness technology — things like vibrating abdominal belts and body-fat-measuring scales — are cumbersome, unnecessary or out-and-out scams.

Other so-called advances, like the elaborate entertainment centers attached to certain newfangled treadmills, seem expressly designed to pull your focus away from your workout, significantly reducing its intensity and effectiveness.

But just because some technology threatens to derail your workout doesn’t mean that all things that light up and beep are incompatible with a great routine.

Today’s high-tech devices and services include some that rival the expertise and motivation of a highly knowledgeable training partner. They can tell you when to push yourself, when to back off and even when to modify your diet.

“The best fitness technology can provide hard numbers about exactly where you are and where you need to go in your fitness program,” says Adam Zucco, director of coaching for www.trainingbible.com and USA Triathlon’s 2009 developmental coach of the year.

Other cutting-edge technology can make formerly inaccessible services like personalized metabolic testing and blood screening far more affordable and convenient to the average gym-goer, supplying the kind of objective data that can help you set benchmarks, strategically tweak routines and inspire progress.

With so much information and insight now available through fitness technology, even us low-tech guys have to sit up and take notice. So here’s my roundup of the gadgets and services that deserve real attention now.

Heart-Rate Monitors

If you’re interested in improving your cardiovascular health, endurance or body composition, a heart-rate monitor should be your first fitness-tech purchase. “It’s like a personal trainer on your wrist,” says Alex Jordan, program manager of fitness technology for Life Time Fitness in Chanhassen, Minn. Even the most basic models give you instantaneous, continuous feedback about how your cardiovascular system is responding to your exercise session.

“One common mistake among people who coach themselves is that they don’t work at the proper intensities — and that’s the one thing you absolutely need to get right to make progress,” says Zucco. Beginners, in particular, he notes, tend to push too hard when they should be taking it easy. “They don’t really know how hard they’re working. If you’re supposed to go for a light recovery jog on a particular day, and you wind up going all-out instead, you didn’t accomplish your goal for that workout.”

This may sound like metabolic hairsplitting, but the line between working just hard enough and pushing yourself too hard can be a surprisingly fine one. If you’re working harder than you ought to on a regular basis, it’s easy to burn out. Plus, if you’re trying to ramp up your fat-burning capacity, “A two- or three-beat change in heart rate can lower the amount of fat you’re burning by 15 to 20 percent,” says Zucco. “A heart-rate monitor keeps you honest, and keeps you on track.” (For more specifics on heart-rate training, see “All Heart.”)

In the last few years, heart-rate monitors have jumped a few levels in sophistication. In addition to heart-rate tracking and caloric expenditure, some all-purpose sports watches now estimate your speed as well, using either a built-in GPS device or a “foot pod,” which tracks your pace, distance and more. Others measure cycling power output, pedaling cadence, altitude and even barometric pressure.

Many such devices can be synced easily with online workout-tracking sites (such as www.garminconnect.com, www.nikeplus.com and www.polarpersonaltrainer.com). Among other things, these sites can provide a map of the area covered during each running or cycling workout, display exactly how hard you were pushing yourself at each point in your workout, and how your efforts compare with the effort you made last week, last month or last year. They also let you track the precise details of each workout and help you design programs that will help you lose weight, complete your first 10K or break 2:20 in an Olympic-distance triathlon.

You can even go head-to-head against other people by pitting your uploaded timed-workout results against those of other users anywhere in the world. “These sites can provide the camaraderie of a running club or expertise of a coach,” says Jordan. “They give you broad, community-based support.”

Exercisers who prefer to do their running or cycling indoors may stand to benefit even more from the latest technology in multifunction heart-rate monitors. Many of the new watches are enabled with something called “ANT+” technology, which automatically syncs up with any similarly enabled treadmill or bike at the gym.

Start your heart-rate monitor stopwatch, do your workout, and your watch keeps track of your speed, incline, distance, calories and heart rate throughout the session. When you’re done, you can wirelessly upload the information right into your personalized file online on the gym’s computer, where you or your trainer can look over the results anytime. “It’s a terrific accountability tool,” says Jordan.

Metabolic Testing

Until you have a current, accurate assessment of your individual cardiovascular capacity, trying to sort out your appropriate exercise zones is a guessing game. That’s why metabolic testing makes so much sense for so many.

“If you’re serious about your heart health and athletic performance — especially in endurance activities — the kind of empirical information you get from a metabolic test can be extremely useful,” says Jordan.

He notes that this testing can also be invaluable if you’re trying to trim down: “A metabolic test shows you in no uncertain terms how efficiently your body burns fat during sustained exercise.”

It used to be that metabolic testing was done almost exclusively in special sports clinics. Today, you can get high-quality testing done in many fitness centers. Accurately testing your metabolism does still require some effort on your part, however.

First, you must fast for eight to 10 hours before the test. At the testing site (find one at www.newleaffitness.com), you strap on a breathing mask and sit quietly for 15 or 20 minutes while a machine measures your Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER), or the difference between the volume of carbon dioxide you exhale and the oxygen you inhale. This ratio is then used to calculate the amount and type of fuel — fat or carbohydrate — you burn at rest (also known as your Resting Metabolic Rate, or RMR).

Next, you hop on a treadmill (or exercise bike) for about 10 minutes, running or pedaling with gradually increasing effort, until you reach and pass your anaerobic threshold, or AT (the effort level at which the body starts to burn much more sugar [or carbs] than fat).

The ability to burn fat — rather than sugar — at a high level of effort is the mark of a well-trained athlete. Even very lean people have plenty of body fat, whereas sugar (in the form of a muscle fuel called glycogen) is relatively scarce. Less conditioned people tend to burn a lot of glycogen during aerobic exercise, whereas more fit individuals burn mostly fat until they are closer to a maximal effort. It is this ability to burn fat, even during vigorous exertion, that allows the experienced athlete to run, cycle or swim for an extended period of time.

The anaerobic threshold, then, provides a pretty clear benchmark of cardiovascular fitness, and an effective endurance program raises it, training the exerciser to burn fat even as her heart rate climbs.

“There are two ways to raise your anaerobic threshold,” says Jordan. “You can ‘push’ it up by performing lots of longer steady-state, lower-intensity workouts below that threshold, or you can ‘pull’ it up by working out at or above the AT with interval training.” Both ways work, and most endurance athletes strike a balance in their programs between safe steady-state workouts and efficient but more intensive speed-and-power sessions.

But you need accurate numbers — not age-related formulas — to design the most effective workouts, says ultramarathoner Adam W. Chase, coauthor of The Ultimate Guide to Trail Running (Globe Pequot Press, 2010). “A person can have a medium-level resting heart rate, a high anaerobic threshold, and a low maximum heart rate. It’s not always consistent.” A metabolic test gives you personalized numbers, allowing you to work in precise effort “zones” based on your true AT, so you make faster progress.

Those seeking the best hard data about their abilities may also want to find out their VO2 max: the maximum volume of oxygen they are capable of processing. Calculating your VO2 max requires you to approach exhaustion, going harder and harder until your cardiovascular system can’t keep up with you.

Knowing your metabolic numbers makes the information you feed into your heart-rate monitor all the more accurate, which means you’ll get a better read on how many calories you’re burning and an even better picture of the improvements in your cardiovascular system over time.

“Every few months I send my clients a report with all their data, including the results of their latest metabolic test,” says Zucco. These reports offer something above and beyond the improved performance, greater energy and compliments from friends that typically come along with a new exercise program: “They can see where they were, where they are now and get a sense of where they might go in the future. And that’s hugely motivational.”

Health Screening

Perhaps the most innovative recent advance in health-and-fitness technology is the availability of  health risk assessments and screenings through a straight-to-consumer service, without the direct involvement of a physician or hospital. Among other things, a basic blood-test screening can offer detailed information about your diet, your hormonal profile, the state of your metabolism and the degree of inflammation in your system, as well as any possible early signs of heart disease or cancer.

Values measured include levels of HDL and LDL cholesterol, BUN/creatinine, phosphorus, calcium and iron; white and red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hemotocrit, and platelets in the blood; plus inflammation markers, such as Chem-26 and CRP.

One such program, conducted through Health-CheckUSA (www.healthcheckusa.com), offers more than 10,000 locations in the United States where you can get your blood drawn. “You get your results from a fully accredited Medical Reference Laboratory at a huge savings — sometimes a third of the cost of what you’d pay through a hospital,” says Jordan. “Plus, you can access your confidential results online within about a week of your blood being drawn.”

Accompanying the numerical results of your blood screening is a detailed report explaining what each number means, and why and how each affects your health. “Once you get your report,” says Jordan, “you then have the option of sharing your results with a nutritionist or other fitness professional who can give you suggestions about how to optimize your health based on your results.” That might involve something as simple as taking a multivitamin or supplement, spending a little more time in the sun, or something as fundamental as changing the way you eat and sleep.

You can have a board-certified physician interpret the results through HealthCheckUSA, but you should see your own doctor if the report identifies any serious conditions.“I try to get my patients to think about their health more broadly. Not just, ‘Am I sick?’ but ‘How can I optimize my health?’” says San Diego physician Mark Schwartz, MD. These widely available blood screenings are “a great way to fill the gap between the health club and the hospital.”

These tests aren’t just for people who suspect serious health issues. Indeed, they’re a terrific source of insight and motivation for people looking to lose weight, upgrade their fitness or just get healthier than they already are.

“With even a basic test, which costs about a hundred dollars, we can see vitamin deficiencies, thyroid function, or evidence that you may be overtraining or have food allergies, any of which may affect your ability to lose weight and get fit,” says Jordan. “One woman who was having trouble losing weight went in to be screened. The test showed her hemoglobin was low.” A few weeks — and lots of spinach and kale later — her VO2 max shot up and she lost 8 pounds.

“Maybe this service will help get doctors and trainers on the same page,” says Schwartz. “I hope we see more things like it.”

Not Just for Gearheads

You may think that cutting-edge tech is better left to 100-mile-a-week runners and people who live on their bikes, but the latest advances may benefit casual athletes even more than the long-distance guys.

“I don’t need a lot of outside motivation to go out and run 15 or 20 miles,” admits Chase. “But most people aren’t like that.” The little push you get from these devices can help structure your workouts, guide your progress and provide you with ongoing motivation, he notes. And that’s the kind of gee-whiz science even a low-tech guy like me can get behind.

Andrew Heffernan, CSCS, is a frequent contributor to Experience Life.

WEB EXTRA!

Choosing a Multifunction Heart-Rate Monitor

Choosing the right heart-rate monitor among the dozens on the market is generally a matter of determining what ultramarathoner Adam W. Chase, coauthor of The Ultimate Guide to Trail Running (Globe Pequot Press, 2010), calls your “tech personality”: “How tech-savvy are you? What information is important to you and what can you do without? What’s going to work best for you given your exercise habits?” For instance, Chase suggests that trail runners stick with footpod models because they’re more accurate on remote switchback paths, while road runners will usually do well with GPS-enabled models. And Joe Friel, endurance coach and author of the Training Bible series, suggests that serious cyclists seek out a model with a power meter — a device you can mount on your handlebars that shows your speed, pedaling cadence and power output. “On the bike, your power output [how much force you’re putting into the pedals over time, expressed in watts] is the most important number you need.” Whichever model you choose, make sure it has everything you need — and not too much more. Features you never use will only get in your way. Polar, Garmin, and Nike offer three distinct takes on sports-watch technology. Here are a few worth looking into Polar (www.polarusa.com): Offers lots of options — from the stripped-down and simple right up through the downright James Bond-ian. At $70, the FS2C is a great basic model, giving you an uncluttered, easy-to-read display. Visual and audible alarms help you stay in the appropriate heart-rate-based intensity zones. The FT80 is designed for heart-rate-based strength training, letting you know when it’s time to start the next set when your heart rate dips to a certain level. It can also offer guidance about exercises, sets and reps based on your goals ($350). Finally, the CS400 is meant for serious cyclists, but with its array of advanced features, it would probably be of equal use to a pilot, doctor or weatherman: In addition to heart-rate data, it gives you incline, average and maximum speed, pedaling cadence, altitude and barometric pressure ($340) With its focus on high-tech for high performers, Garmin (www.garmin.com) takes on-the-wrist technology to new heights. The FR60 is a mid-priced model enabled with “ANT+ technology,” which allows you to wirelessly interact with some indoor fitness equipment. An optional foot pod  tracks speed and distance ($200). At $370, the sleek Forerunner 405CX, is a lot of watch for the money: GPS-enabled, it continually records time, distance, pace, calories burned and heart rate, while the Virtual Partner feature allows you to race against an imaginary partner. The Forerunner 205 ($150) is Garmin’s entry-level model, but still comes loaded with cool options, including a “courses” feature, which compares your pace over a given workout to past performance on the same course Finally, Nike (www.nikeplus.com), aimed squarely at runners, favors user-friendliness and ease of use over heart-rate minutia — which it doesn’t track. Users can select either an iPod-enabled device — which allows you to give your run a personalized soundtrack — or the compact, inexpensive SportBand ($60), either one of which picks up data from a tiny sensor in your shoe, tracking distance, pace, time and calories burned throughout your workout. When you’re done with your run, you can sync the data from your iPod or SportBand to NikePlus online, the “World’s Largest Running Club,” where you can track progress, challenge other users, even talk trash. The online coaching option gives you a road map to the running goal of your choice.

WEB EXTRA!

What’s New in Cardio Equipment

Treadmills and stationary bikes have long been a staple for the average gym-goer, and high-level coaches recognize their value as training tools for everyone from weekend warriors to pro athletes.

“Creating consistency may be the No. 1 key to a successful training program, and treadmills and stationary bikes can offer that,” says Adam Zucco, USA Triathlon developmental coach of the year for 2009 and director of coaching for www.trainingbible.com. “Plus, they allow you to control your intensity in a way that outdoor running and cycling often can’t. I can’t really tell someone who lives in Chicago to go run hills, or someone who lives in Georgia to go on an easy, flat run. In those cases, treadmills and stationary bikes are invaluable.”
Treadmills have their shortcomings, however. Most will only go so fast and incline so far, which limits their applicability to people training for intense climbing, descending or speed work. And nearly all treadmills offer compromised ergonomics: The conveyer belt drags your foot backward as you stride, which eliminates much of the work done by the glutes and hamstrings during a normal running motion and can lead to the inefficient habit of bouncing up and down as you run. Stationary bikes have their drawbacks too, most of them stemming from lack of durability and poor fit — which can lead to compromised pedaling mechanics and even injury.

So: Convenience and control — good. Limited speed and incline capabilities, poor exercise mechanics and paltry lifespan — bad.
Fortunately, the techies have been hard at work troubleshooting these big-box items as well, so that your indoor run or ride can be almost as smooth and ergonomic as the open road. Three new treadmills and one new bike offer something closer to the best of both worlds:

FreeMotion Incline Trainer Pro Treadmill: Offers up to a 40 percent incline — something like the grade you’d encounter on a hike — and also declines, which allows the user to practice “overspeed” training, great for getting faster and improving running mechanics. “Most treadmills just don’t offer those options,” says Jacob Guajardo, a facilities designer for Perform Better.

Force and Curve treadmills, by Woodway: These innovative devices tackle the running mechanics problem by dispensing with the motor. With these Woodway devices, the user is the motor. On Force, you push the belt behind you while a variable-resistance braking system slows it down, giving you a workout that resembles pulling a weighted sled; with Curve, the belt responds precisely to your speed and acceleration, allowing you to speed up or slow down at will, no button-pushing — or electricity — required. “These treadmills give you a completely natural running feel,” says Guajardo.

Keiser M3 Indoor Cycle: The problem with group-cycling bikes? “They break,” says Guajardo. “People ride them all day, the pedals get wobbly, the friction system gets worn, they corrode from sweat.” Keiser’s bike — which uses magnetic force rather than friction to provide resistance — is a huge leap forward. “It’s pretty much indestructible,” says Guajardo. Plus, the resistance is numerical and quantifiable, so you no longer have to guesstimate when your group-cycling instructor tells you to turn it up to 11.

Andrew Heffernan, CSCS, is a frequent contributor to Experience Life.

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